Primary & Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease 2017

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) has been the leading cause of death in Malaysian since the early 1980s. The National Burden of Disease Study in early 2000s showed that coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVA) are the top two causes of death for both men and women. What is of concern is that the age of onset of CVD in Malaysia is younger compared to our neighbors and some western nations.

Equally of concern is that the incidence of the major risk factors contributing to CVD has shown an increasing trend over the last 3 decades. The Ministry of Health (MOH) in conjunction with the Academy of Medicine and Professional Non-Governmental Organisations had since the mid-1990s had published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) on the Management of major risk factors for CVD. This is followed by CPGs on the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure and Cerebrovascular Accidents. More recently, in 2010, the MOH launched the National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Disease (NSP-NCD) in response to the global challenge in combatting NCD in general and CVD in particular. This document is now being updated by the MOH to reflect latest developments in the field and more current global targets set by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

What has been missing thus far is an integrated approach to combat CVD at both the primary and secondary prevention levels. This is where this pioneering CPG on Prevention of CVD is a most welcome addition to compliment earlier initiatives to confront the scourge of CVD. The integrated approach adopted in this CPG engaging a wide spectrum of health care professionals (from dieticians to clinicians) is most commendable. It is my wish that this CPG is widely available and adopted by all health care professionals involved in the management of CVD. I strongly believe that, God Willing, compliance to the recommendation made in this CPG will go a long way to improve the quality of care we offer to reverse the rising tide of this preventable disease.


Datuk Dr. Noor Hisham Bin Abdullah
Director-General of Health Malaysia
Ministry of Health Malaysia


Statement of intent:

This guideline was developed to be a guide for best clinical practice in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, based on the best available evidence at the time of development. Specific attempts were made to use local data and publications to ensure local relevance. Adherence to this guideline does not necessarily lead to the best clinical outcome in individual patient care as this depends on other clinical factors like co-morbidities, acceptance of patients towards recommended therapy etc. Every health care provider is responsible to individualise the management of his/her unique patient based on the clinical presentation and management options available locally.

Review of the Guideline:

This guideline is issued in 2017 and will be reviewed in 2022 or earlier if important new evidence becomes available.


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